مهم‏ترین پیش‏ بینی کننده های ریسک سلامتی کشاورزان در مصرف سموم شیمیایی (مورد مطالعه کشاورزان سیب‌زمینی‌کار استان اردبیل)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آب و مدیریت کشاورزی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 استادیار گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران

3 استادیار مؤسسه آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در سال‏ های اخیر، پذیرش کند روش‏ های جایگزین سموم شیمیایی و گسترش آفات، پتانسیل ریسک سلامتی در مصرف سموم شیمیایی را میان کشاورزان به شدت افزایش داده است. از این ‏رو، این تحقیق توصیفی-پیمایشی به تعیین مهم‏ترین عوامل پیش ‏بینی‏ کننده ریسک سلامتی در مصرف سموم شیمیایی، میان کشاورزان سیب ‏زمینی‏ کار استان اردبیل پرداخت. روش نمونه‏ گیری، چندمرحله‏ ای بوده و حجم نمونه‏ از میان جامعه آماری (N=4876)، بر اساس جدول بارتلت و همکاران، به تعداد 370 نفر تعیین شد. مطابق نتایج، کشاورزان در سموم شیمیایی مختلف، بیش‏ مصرفی داشته و درصد قابل توجهی از کشاورزان (35/7 درصد) در گروه افراد با ریسک سلامتی بالا قرار داشتند. بیشترین میزان بیش‏ مصرفی سموم، مربوط به کلرپریفوس و تری فلورالین بود؛ اما خطرناک‏ترین سموم برای ریسک سلامتی، مربوط به کلرپریفوس و متری‏بوزین بود. مطابق مدل درخت تصمیم‏ گیری و محاسبه شاخص ترکیبی، به ترتیب اندازه مزرعه، هنجار اجتماعی، ادراک از مضرات سموم شیمیایی و سابقه شرکت در دوره‏ های آموزشی، مهم‏ ترین متغیرهای پیش ‏بینی برای شاخص ریسک سلامتی بودند. حمایتهای آموزشی، فنی و اعتباری بیشتر از کشاورزان خرده‏ مالک برای جایگزینی سموم شیمیایی پرخطر؛ دریافت بازخوردهای مداوم آموزشی از ادراک کشاورزان نسبت به مضرات بیش‏ مصرفی سموم و بهبود هنجار اجتماعی با کسب همراهی معتمدان محلی و کشاورزان ماهر می‏ تواند ریسک سلامتی کشاورزان در مصرف سموم شیمیایی را کاهش دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Most Important Predictors of Farmers Health Risk towards Pesticides Consumption (The Case of Potato Growers of Ardabil Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mojtaba Sookhtanlou 1
  • Moslem Savari 2
  • Hesamedin Gholami 3
1 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources. University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran
3 Assistant professor, Institute of Agricultural Education and Extension, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Recently, slow adoption of chemical pesticides alternatives and the increasing of pests has greatly increased the health risk potential in pesticides consumption among farmers. Therefore, this descriptive survey study aimed to determine the most important predictors of health risk in pesticides consumption among potato growers in Ardabil province, Iran. A sample of 370 potato growers were chosen among Ardabil province potato growers (N= 4876), according to the table of Bartlett et al. using multi-stage sampling method. The results revealed that farmers overused in different chemical pesticides and the most farmers (35.7%) were at a high level of health risk. Chlorpyrifos and Trifluralin had the highest level of pesticides overuse, while Chlorpyrifos and Metribuzin were the most hazardous pesticides for health risk. According to the decision tree model and calculation of the composite index, farm size, social norm, perceived chemical pesticides risk and history of participation in training courses, were the most important predictors of health risk index, respectively. Training, technical and financial support for small-scale farmers to replace hazardous chemical pesticides; receiving continuous educational feedback from farmers' perception of pesticide overuse hazard and improving social norms with the local leaders’ support and skilled farmers can reduce the health risk of farmers in chemical pesticides consumption.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ardabil Province
  • Chemical Pesticides
  • Health risk
  • Potato growers
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