Guide for Authors

The different sections of the article should be prepared as follows:

  1. Title page

Each manuscript should include a title page containing the title of the manuscript, author(s) full name(s), academic degree of the author(s), full name and address of the affiliated university or institution, and the name of the place where the research was conducted. In addition, title page should be containing authors' immediate contact information like Telephone number, Fax, and E-mail(s).


  1. The title

The titles of the articles should be simple and understandable. I should also reflect the content of the article. It is recommended to use keywords in the title as much as possible. The title should not exceed 20 words.


  1. Abstract

The abstract of the articles should be 100 to 200 words and must indicate the problem, purpose, method, and results of the research. Since most readers only have access to the abstracts, it is necessary that this part of the articles be written carefully enough and fluently. In addition, the abstract of each article may be indexed by different data bases and institutions providing scientific information. At the end of the abstract it is necessary to provide three to five keywords.


  1. Introduction

In this section, the authors should try to introduce the subject of research, define the hypotheses, highlight the most important previous works in the literature, explain the importance of issue, and specify the research purpose. If a new method is used in the research, the reasons for its superiority over other methods should be mentioned. The main purpose of this section is to provide sufficient prior information on the subject under study. This enables the reader to understand the results and compare and evaluate them with previous work without studying the main sources. It is essential that the background be up to date.


  1. Research method

In this section, a detailed description of the research methods used should be provided. If conventional research methods are used, their description should be avoided and referring to the main source is satisfying. However, if a new method is used, a full description is needed. In the case of the development and change of conventional methods, a description of the method of development and change is sufficient. In this section, the measurement tools used must be introduced exactly.


  1. Findings and discussion

The results of the research can be presented in the form of tables, graphs, maps, and drawings (schematic model). These should be completely clear and understandable and truly represent the research data. The numeric values presented in the tables and other items should be discussed and interpreted in this section. The results should not be repeated in the form of a table, curve, or written text. A table should contain at most one page and have a specific title. The title should be as short, clear, and expressive as much as possible. To write the title of a table (or chart), after mentioning the word "table or chart", its number must be written, then a dash and then the title. Tables should be semi-closed (with minimal horizontal lines and no vertical lines). Each column of the table must have a title and unit associated with that column. Abbreviations *, **, ***, and so on in the text of the table can be used to express additional explanations about each table, respectively. These explanations provide the readers with the required complementary information. Shapes, drawings, and photographs should be sharp enough and, if necessary, have a unit, with the title of each one written below them.

In this section, the presented findings are analyzed and interpreted. The reader also focuses on the main subject of the research, hypotheses, results obtained, and the gaps observed in the relationships. Consequently, the areas that need more research are pointed out. The results of the study should be compared to the results of other studies. Finally, practical and theoretical applications of the research and final conclusions should be presented.


  1. Conclusion and recommendations

The conclusions and recommendations section is provided at the end of the article. In this section, the main conclusions of the article are briefly stated and, if necessary, suggestions are provided.


  1. Acknowledgements

The authors can express their gratitude to the all individuals, organizations, organs, and supporting research implementation through their funding, field operations, etc. It is recommended that this section be as short as possible (maximum of 50 words).


  1. References

References used should include the latest information on the research title. The referencing based on the latest version of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) is as follows:

9.1.How to cite within the main text of the manuscript: References are allowed to be cited in this section, which have been published or accepted as books, full-length articles, and short articles in various journals. These sources should be accessible through libraries or databases. In the text of the article, after the surname of the author(s), the publication date should be given in parentheses. In articles with more than two authors, only the name of the first author is written with the word letters "et al.,". For example:

One authors: (Rasheed, 2000)

Two authors: (Elder & Druy, 2001)

More than two authors: (Azizi et al., 2010)


9.2.How to provide a resources list: It is necessary to refer to all Persian and English sources in the text and in the list of references. In this process, first Persian sources and then English sources should be given in alphabetical order. If more than one article has been used by an author, the articles of that author should be numbered in ascending chronological order. If an author has independent and joint articles with other authors, first his/her independent articles and then joint articles are numbered alphabetically and in chronological order. Consider the following examples to learn how to write references according to the APA guidelines:



  1. Roling, N. (1988). Extension science: Information systems in agricultural development. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.


  1. Roling, N., and  Jiggins, J. (1998). The ecological knowledge system. In N. Roling, and  M. A. Ewagemakers (Eds.), Facilitating sustainable agriculture: Participatory learning and adoptive management in times of environmental uncertainty, PP. 283-311. Cambridge.


Journal article with one author

Karami, E. (1986). Agricultural extension in development theory: Some conceptual and empirical considerations. Journal of Extension Systems, 2 (2), 61-69.


Journal article with two author

Salmanzadeh, S., and  Jones, G.E. (1981). Transformations in the agrarian structure in Southwestern Iran. The Journal of Developing Areas, 15, 199-214.


Thesis or dissertation

  1. Holtom, d. (2004). Coercion and consent: The World Bank in Tanzania, 1970 – 2001. Ph.D. Dissertation. Centre for Development Studies, University of Wales, Swansea, UK.
  2. Nkomo, N. (2009). A comparative analysis of the web information seeking behavior of students and staff at the University of Zululand and the Durban University of Technology. M.A. Thesis. University of Zululand.


Conference papers

Karamidehkordi, E., and Hashemi, A. (2010). Farmers’ knowledge of integrated pest management: A case study in the Zanjan province in Iran. Paper presented at the Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and Food (ISDA), June 6th, Montpellier, France.



Wenjuan, N., Huimin, W., and Lei, Q. (2009). A framework of trans-boundary water conflict model based on qualitative simulation of behavior. International Conference on Engineering Management and Service Sciences. Available at: <>


Note: It is necessary to indicate the exact electronic address of the articles, dissertations, and books retrieved from the Internet at the end of references.



  1. English abstract

Persian abstract must be translated completely and accurately into English.


Other notes

  1. Full-length research articles are manuscripts that are the result of original research findings and are published after a critical review by the reviewers and the approval of the Editorial Board. These articles should not normally exceed 15 pages.
  2. The full responsibility for the opinions expressed in the articles as well as the observance of the rights of other authors and researchers rests with the author(s).
  3. The final decision on the rejection, acceptance, and revision of the articles is reserved for the Editorial Board.
  4. Unaccepted articles will not be returned to the author(s).
  5. All units of the articles must be presented in the metric system.
  6. In order to improve the quality of articles and eliminate possible mistakes, it is recommended that authors, before submitting articles to this journal, ask their colleagues to read them carefully and eliminate possible shortcomings.


Consideration process for the manuscripts

Manuscripts submitted to this journal go through the following process:

  1. Submitting the manuscript by the corresponding author through the journal's online submission system;
  2. Confirmation of receiving the manuscript by the journal;
  3. Initial evaluation of the manuscript by the Editor-in-Chief;
  4. Sending back the manuscript to the corresponding author for initial corrections;
  5. Drafting the manuscript in the Board of Editors;
  6. Inviting at least three expert reviewers for review and adjudication of the manuscript;
  7. Sending the opinion of the reviewers to a scientific editor in order to summarize and review the results of the evaluations;
  8. Sending the opinion of the reviewers and the scientific editor to the corresponding author;
  9. Receiving the author's response and corrections to the article;
  10. Redrafting the manuscript in the Board of Editors;
  11. Sending revised manuscript to the scientific editor or a reviewer in order to implement and announce the final opinion;
  12. Announcing the final result of the process in the form of acceptance or rejection to the corresponding author.