بررسی نقش هوش هیجانی در توسعه قصد کارآفرینانه‏ دانشجویان کشاورزی (مطالعه موردی: دانشگاه‌های بوعلی سینا، رازی، کردستان و لرستان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

چکیده

هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر، بررسی نقش هوش هیجانی در توسعه قصد کارآفرینانه دانشجویان بود. نظریه رفتار برنامه‌ریزی شده چارچوب مفهومی و روش‏شناختی مناسبی برای انجام این کار فراهم می‌آورد. به همین دلیل، هوش هیجانی درون این چارچوب ادغامشد تا نحوه‌ی تأثیر آن بر توسعه قصد کارآفرینانه‌ی دانشجویان بررسی شود. روش پژوهش، توصیفی از نوع پیمایشی می‌باشد.جامعه آماری شامل دانشجویان کشاورزی سال آخر در چهار دانشگاه غرب کشور (شامل: بوعلی سینا، رازی، کردستان و لرستان) بود (1450N=) که از این میان، بر اساس جدول بارتلت و همکاران تعداد 300 نفر به روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی طبقه‌ای به عنوان نمونه آماری انتخاب شدند.داده‌های پژوهش با استفاده از پرسشنامه‌ای ساختارمند گرد‌آوری شد که روایی آن توسط پانل متخصصان و پایایی آن به وسیله ضریب آلفا کرونباخ تأیید شد (0/74 تا 0/80). نتایج حاصل از مدل‌یابی معادلات ساختاری نشان داد که هوش هیجانی با نگرش و کنترل رفتاری درک شده رابطه مثبت و معنی‌داری دارد. نتایج به دست آمده همچنین نشان داد که نگرش نسبت به کارآفرینی و کنترل رفتاری درک شده رابطه بین هوش هیجانی و قصد کارآفرینانه را میانجی‌گری می‌نماید. یافته‌های به دست آمده به توسعه ادبیات کارآفرینی کمک می‌نماید و در زمینه طراحی و ارائه برنامه‌های آموزش کارآفرینی کاربرد دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying the Role of Emotional Intelligence in Developing Entrepreneurial Intentions of Agricultural Students (Case Study: Bu-Ali Sina, Razi, Kordestan and Lorestan Universities)

نویسنده [English]

  • Saeid Karimi
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of emotional intelligence in developing entrepreneurial intentions. The Theory of Planned Behavior provides a relevant conceptual and methodological framework for determining how emotional intelligence influences the entrepreneurial intentions of students. Therefore, emotional intelligence was incorporated into the Theory of Planned Behavior. The statistical population of this research consisted of 1450 senior agricultural students at four public universities in the west of Iran (N=1450). According to a table developed by Bartlett et al., a sample of 300 students was chosen through random stratified sampling method. Data was collected using a questionnaire by survey. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts and its reliability was determined using Cronbach's Alpha test ( 14"> =0.74-0.80). The results of structural equation modeling indicate that emotional intelligence positively relates to attitudes toward entrepreneurship and perceived behavioral control. The results also showed that the attitudes toward entrepreneurship and perceived behavioral control mediate the relationships between emotional intelligence and the intention to become an entrepreneur. The research findings can contribute in the entrepreneurship literature and have implications for design and delivery of entrepreneurship education programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Entrepreneurial Intentions
  • Theory of Planned Behavior
  • Emotional intelligence
  • Agricultural Students

احمدی کافشانی، ع.، و ناظمی، ع. (1393). بررسی ارتباط هوش هیجانی با قصد کارآفرینانه مورد مطالعه: دانشجویان کارشناسی تربیت بدنی دانشگاه تهران. فصلنامه مدیریت ورزشی، شماره 22، صص 441-421.

ظریفیان، ش.، ‌پیش‌بهار، ا.، عادلی ساردوئی، م.، و شریفی، ا. (1394). ویژگی‌های روانشناختی مؤثر بر کارآفرینی دانشجویان دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز. علوم ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی ایران، جلد 11، شماره 1، صص 30-19.

کریمی، س.، موحدی، ر.، سعدی، ح.، و یعقوبی فرانی، ا. (1394). رابطه‌ی شخصیت پویا و اراده‌ی کارآفرینانه دانشجویان کشاورزی. فصلنامه پژوهش مدیریت آموزش کشاورزی، شماره 34، 134-117.

کمالیان، ا. ر.، و فاضل، ا. (1390). بررسی رابطه‌ی هوش هیجانی و میزان کارآفرینی دانشجویان (مطالعه‌ی موردی: دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان). نشریه توسعه کارآفرینی، دوره 3، شماره 11، صص 147-127.

وطن­خواه، ن.، و رضائی مقدم، ک. (1394). شناخت روحیه کارآفرینی دانشجویان: مورد مطالعه دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز. علوم ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی ایران، جلد 11، شماره 1، صص 71-59.

 

Ahmetoglu G., Leutner F., and Chamorro-Premuzic T. (2011). EQnomics: Understanding the relationship between individual differences in trait emotional intelligence and entrepreneurship. Individual Difference Research, 51(8), 1028-33.

Ajzen I. (1991). The theory of planned behaviour. Organizational Behaviours and Human Decision Processes, 50 (2), 179-211.

Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(4), 665–683.

Amabile, T.M., Barsade, S.G., Mueller, J.S., and Staw, B.M. (2005). Affect and creativity at work. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50(3), 367.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control .New York: W. H. Freeman and Company

Bar-On, R. (1997). The Bar-On emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i): A test of emotional intelligence. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.

Baron, R. A. (2008). The role of affect in the entrepreneurial process. Academy of Management Review, 33, 328–340.

Bartlett, J. E., Kotrlik, J. W., and Higgins, C. C. (2001). Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size in survey research. Information Technology, Learning and Performance Journal, 19(1), 23-29.

Bird, B. (1988). Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: the case for intention. Academy of Management Review, 13, 442–453.

Cardon, M. S., Foo, M. D., Shepherd, D., and Wiklund, J. (2012). Exploring the heart: Entrepreneurial emotion is a hot topic. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36, 1-10.

Carmeli, A. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behavior and outcomes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(8), 788-813.

Chell, E., and Baines, S. (2000). Networking, Entrepreneurship and micro-business behavior. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 12(2), 195-215.

Cheung, G. W., and Lau, R. S. (2008). Testing mediation and suppression effects of latent variables: Bootstrapping with structural equation models. Organizational Research Methods, 11(2), 296-325.

Di Fabio, A., and Saklofske, D. H. (2014). Promoting individual resources: The challenge of trait emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 65, 19-23.

Fishbein, M., and Ajzen, I. (2010). Predicting and changing behavior: The reasoned action approach. New York: Psychology Press (Taylor & Francis).

Frank, H., Lueger, M., and Korunka, C. (2007). The significance of personality in business start-up intentions, start-up realization and business success. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 19(3), 227-251.

Hair, J.F., Black W.C., Babin, B.J., and Anderson, R.E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective. Upper Saddle River, Nee Jersi, USA: Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc..

Herpertz, S., Schütz, A., and Nezlek, J. (2016). Enhancing emotion perception, a fundamental component of emotional intelligence: Using multiple-group SEM to evaluate a training program. Personality and Individual Differences, 95, 11-19.

Humphrey, R. H. (2013). The benefits of emotional intelligence and empathy to entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 3, 287-294.

Iakovleva, T., Kolvereid, L., and Stephan, U. (2011). Entrepreneurial intentions in developing and developed countries. Education + Training, 53(5), 353-370.

Jaeger, A. J. (2003). Job competencies and the curriculum: An inquiry into emotional intelligence in graduate professional education. Research in Higher Education, 44(6), 615-39.

Karimi, S. (2014). Analysing and p  romoting entrepreneurship in Iranian higher education: Entrepreneurial attitudes, intentions and opportunity identification Ph.D. Dissertation. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Karimi, S., Biemans, H. J. A., Lans, T., Chizari, M., and Mulder, M. (2016). The impact of entrepreneurship education: A study of Iranian students' entrepreneurial intentions and opportunity identification. Journal of Small Business Management, 54(1), 187-209.

Karimi, S., Biemans, H.J.A., Lans, T., Chizari, M., and Mulder, M. (2014). Effects of role models and gender on students’ entrepreneurial intentions. European Journal of Training and Development, 38(8), 694 - 727.

Katz, J. A. (2007). Education and training in entrepreneurship. In Baum, J.R., Baron, M. F. (Eds.) The psychology of entrepreneurship. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Kautonen, T., van Gelderen, M., and Fink, M. (2015). Robustness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(3), 655–674.

Kolvereid, L., (1996). Organizational employment versus self-employment: reasons for career choice intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 20 (3), 23–31.

Kolvereid, L., and Isaksen, E. (2006). New business start-up and subsequent entry into self-employment. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(6), 866-885.

Kong, F., and Zhao, J. (2013). Affective mediators of the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and life satisfaction in young adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 197-201.

Krueger, N., Reilly, M., and Carsrud, A. (2000). Competing model of entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Business Venturing, 15, 411-432.

Linan, F., and Chen, Y. (2009). Development and cross-cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 33(3), 593-617.

Mayer, J., and Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter, Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Implications for educators. New York: Basic Book.

Mortan, R. A., Ripoll, P., Carvalho, C., and Bernal, M. C. (2014). Effects of emotional intelligence on entrepreneurial intention and self-efficacy. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 30, 97-104.

Neqabi, S., and Bahadori, M. (2012). Relationship between emotional intelligence and entrepreneurial behavior. J Mil Med, 14 (2), 123-128.

North, D.C. (2005). Understanding the process of economic change. Princeton: Princeton University Press

O’Boyle, E. H., Humphrey, R. H., Pollack, J. M., Hawver, T. H., and Story, P. A. (2011). The relation between emotional intelligence and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 788-818.

Padilla-Meléndez, A., Fernández-Gámez, M. A., and Molina-Gómez, J. (2014). Feeling the risks: effects of the development of emotional competences with outdoor training on the entrepreneurial intent of university students. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 10(4), 1-24.

Pradhan, R. K., and Nath, P. (2012). Perception of entrepreneurial orientation and emotional intelligence: A study on India's future techno-managers. Global Business Review, 13(1), 89-108.

Pradhan, R.K. (2003). Emotional intelligence as tool for managing workforce diversity. Prestige Journal of Management and Research, 7(2), 240–249.

Preacher, K. J., and Hayes, A. F. (2008). A symptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879-891.

Rauch, A., and Frese, M. (2007). Let's put the person back into entrepreneurship research: A meta analysis on the relationship between business owners' personality traits, business creation, and success. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 16, 353-385.

Salovey, P., and Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3), 185–211.

Schlaegel, C., and Koenig, M. (2014). Determinants of entrepreneurial intent: A meta-analytic test and integration of competing models. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(2), 291–332.

Shepherd, D. A. (2004). Educating entrepreneurship students about emotion and learning from failure. Academy of Management: Learning & Education, 3, 274 –288.

Shook, C.L., Ketchen, D. J. Jr., Hul,t G.T.M. and Kacmar, K.M. (2004). An assessment of the use of structural equation models in strategic management research. Strategic Management Journal, 25, 397–404.

Shrout, P. E., and Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and non-experimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7, 422–445

Slaski, M., and Cartwright, S. (2003). Emotional intelligence training and its implications for stress, health and performance. Stress and Health, 19, 233-239.

Tsaousis, I. and Nikolaou, I. (2005). Exploring the relationship of emotional intelligence with physical and psychological health functioning. Stress and Health, 21, 77–86

Wong, C.S., and Law, K. (2002). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. The Leadership Quarterly, 13(3), 243–274.

Wong, P.K., Ho, Y.P., and Autio, E. (2005). Entrepreneurship, innovation and economic growth. Small Business Economics, 24, 335–350.

Zampetakis, L. A., Kafetsios, K., Bouranta, N., Dewett, T., and Moustakis, V. S. (2009). On the relationship between emotional intelligence and entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 15(6), 595 - 618.

Zhao, H., Seibert, S. E., and Lumpkin, G. T. (2010). The relationship of personality to entrepreneurial intentions and performance: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Management, 36(2), 381-40.