نقش میانجی انطباق ‏پذیری مسیر شغلی و خودکارآمدی کارآفرینانه در رابطه بین ویژگی‌های شخصیتی و قصد کارآفرینانه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

چکیده

بر اساس نظریه‌های سازه‌گرایی مسیر شغلی، رفتار برنامه‌ریزی شده و تحقیقات پیشین، هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر بررسی نقش میانجی انطباق‌پذیری مسیر شغلی و خودکارآمدی کارآفرینانه بین ویژگی‌های شخصیتی و قصد کارآفرینانه بود. جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل 1300 نفر از دانشجویان سال سوم و آخر کارشناسی رشته‌های کشاورزی دانشگاه‌های بوعلی سینا و اراک بود که با توجه به جدول کرجسی و مورگان، تعداد 341 نفر از آن‌ها به‌عنوان نمونه آماری به روش نمونه‌گیری طبقه‌ای متناسب انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها پرسشنامه بود. روایی ظاهری و محتوایی پرسشنامه با نظر متخصصان و پایایی آن نیز از طریق برآورد مدل اندازه‌گیری و ضریب آلفای کرونباخ ارزیابی و تأیید شد. داده‌های پژوهش با استفاده از روش مدل‌‌سازی معادلات ساختاری با رویکرد حداقل مربعات جزئی و با کمک نرم‌افزار SmartPLS 3.0 تجزیه و تحلیل شدند. نتایج نشان داد که خودکارآمدی کارآفرینانه رابطه بین انطباق‌پذیری مسیر شغلی و ویژگی‌های شخصیتی (تجربه‌پذیری و وظیفه‌شناسی) با قصد کارآفرینانه را به‌طور کامل میانجی‌گری می‌کند. نتایج همچنین بیانگر رابطه‌ی معنی‌دار ویژگی‌های شخصیتی با انطباق‌پذیری مسیر شغلی بودند، اما تأثیر مستقیم این ویژگی‌ها و انطباق‌پذیری مسیر شغلی بر قصد کارآفرینانه تأیید نشد. می‌توان از این نتایج در توسعه سطح خودکارآمدی و قصد کارآفرینانه‌ی دانشجویان استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Mediating Role of Career Adaptability and Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy between Personality Traits and Entrepreneurial Intentions

نویسنده [English]

  • Saeed Karimi
Assistant professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Bu-Ali Sina University
چکیده [English]

Based on the Career Construction Theory, the Theory of Planned Behavior and prior personality studies, the main purpose of this research was to examine the mediating role of career adaptability and entrepreneurial self-efficacy between personality traits (Five-Factor Model personality traits) and entrepreneurial intentions. The study population was including 1300 senior bachelor agriculture students at Bu-Ali Sina University and Arak University. According to the table of Krejcie and Morgan, 341 of them were selected through proportional stratified sampling. A questionnaire was used to collect data. The content and face validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts and its reliability was confirmed by evaluating measurement model and using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Data were then analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modelling by the help of Smart PLS 3.0 software. The results indicated that entrepreneurial self-efficacy completely mediated the relations among career adaptability, personality traits (openness and conscientiousness) and entrepreneurial intentions. The results also showed that there were positive relations among personality traits (openness and conscientiousness) and career adaptability. However, the direct effects of personality traits and career adaptability on entrepreneurial intentions were not supported by the results. Theoretical and practical implications for developing entrepreneurial self-efficacy, intentions and career adaptability are discussed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Career adaptability
  • personality traits
  • Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy
  • Entrepreneurial Intentions
  • Agriculture Students

حسنقلی پور، س.ج.، قلی پور، ط.، حاجی کریمی، آ.، و کریمی جعفری، ف. (1396). طراحی مدل انطباق‌پذیری مسیر شغلی (مورد مطالعه: شرکت پتروشیمی شازند). مجله پژوهش‌های مدیریت عمومی، 10(36)، 31-62.‎

صالحی، ر.، عابدی، م.، باغبان، ا.، و نیلفروشان، پ. (1393). بررسی ساختار عاملی، اعتبار و روایی مقیاس انطباق‌پذیری مسیر شغلی (CAAS). فصلنامه اندازه‌گیری تربیتی، 4(16)، 49-66.

صفری، م.، ربیعی، م.، و مصباح، ن. (1395). بررسی میزان و عوامل مؤثر بر انطباق‏پذیری شغلی دانشجویان ورودی جدید دانشگاه تهران در سال 1393. مجله نوآوری‌های مدیریت آموزشی، 11(3)، 94-83.

ظریفیان، ش.، پیش بهار، ا.، عادلی ساردوئی، م.، و شریفی، ا. (1394). ویژگی‌های روانشناختی مؤثر بر کارآفرینی دانشجویان دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز. مجله علوم ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، 11(1)، 30-19

کریمی، س. (1396). نقش نیمرخ شخصیت کارآفرینانه و عوامل انگیزشی در توسعه قصد کارآفرینانه دانشجویان کشاورزی در دانشگاه‌های غرب کشور.‎مجله پژوهش‌های علوم شناختی و رفتاری، 7(1)، 34-17.

کریمی، س. (1395). بررسی نقش هوش هیجانی در توسعه قصد کارآفرینانه دانشجویان کشاورزی (مطالعه موردی: دانشگاه‌های بوعلی سینا، رازی، کردستان و لرستان). مجله علوم ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، 12(1)، 84-71

محمدی، ا.، نیل فروشان، پ.، و سلیمی، س. (1395). تأثیر مشاوره مسیر شغلی با رویکرد حکایتی بر انطباق‌پذیری مسیر شغلی دانشجویان نابینا.‎ مجله دانش و پژوهش در روانشناسی کاربردی، 17(1)، 89-80.

موحدی، ر.، و جلیلیان، س. (1395). تحلیل سازه‌های مؤثر بر روحیه‌ی کارآفرینی دانشجویان تحصیلات تکمیلی ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی. مجله علوم ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، 12(1)، 197-181.

Ashton, M.C., Lee, K., and De Vries, R.E. (2014). The HEXACO Honesty-Humility, agreeableness, and emotionality factors: A review of research and theory. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 18(2), 139-152.

Audretsch, D.B. (2007). The entrepreneurial society. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44, 1175.

Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual review of Psychology, 52(1), 1-26.

Baum, J.R., and Locke, E.A. (2004). The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skill, and motivation to subsequent venture growth. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4), 587.

Baum, J.R., Locke, E.A., and Smith, K.G. (2001). A multidimensional model of venture growth. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 292-303.

Brandstätter, H. (2011). Personality aspects of entrepreneurship: A look at five meta-analyses. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(3), 222-230.

Braun, B., Stopfer, J.M., Müller, K.W., Beutel, M.E., and Egloff, B. (2016). Personality and video gaming: Comparing regular gamers, non-gamers, and gaming addicts and differentiating between game genres. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 406-412.

Burtăverde, V., Chraif, M., Aniţei, M., and Dumitru, D. (2017). The HEXACO model of personality and risky driving behavior. Psychological Reports, 120(2), 255-270.

Caliendo, M., Fossen, F., and Kritikos, A.S. (2014). Personality characteristics and the decisions to become and stay self-employed. Small Business Economics, 42(4), 787-814.

Chin, W.W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Modern Methods for Business Research, 295(2), 295-336.

Chin, W.W. (2010). How to write up and report PLS analyses. In: Vinzi, V.E., Chin, W.W., Henseler, J., Wang, H. (Eds.), Handbook of Partial Least Squares: Concepts, Methods and Applications (Springer Handbooks of Computational Statistics Series, Vol. II). Springer, Heidelberg, Dordrecht, London, New York, pp. 655-690.

Costa Jr, P.T., and McCrae, R.R. (1992). Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(6), 653-665.

Diamantopoulos, A., Sarstedt, M., Fuchs, C., Wilczynski, P., and Kaiser, S. (2012). Guidelines for choosing between multi-item and single-item scales for construct measurement: A predictive validity perspective. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(3), 434-449.

Douglass, R.P., and Duffy, R.D. (2015). Calling and career adaptability among undergraduate students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 86, 58-65.

Duffy, R.D., Douglass, R.P., and Autin, K.L. (2015). Career adaptability and academic satisfaction: Examining work volition and self efficacy as mediators. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 90, 46-54.

Ebenehi, A.Sh., Mat Rashid, A., and Bakar, A.R. (2016). Predictors of career adaptability skill among higher education students in Nigeria. International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training (IJRVET), 3 (3), 212-229.

Farrukh, M., Alzubi, Y., Shahzad, I.A., Waheed, A., and Kanwal, N. (2018). Entrepreneurial intentions: The role of personality traits in perspective of theory of planned behavior. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 12(3), 399-414.

Fishbein, M., and Ajzen, I. (2010). Predicting and changing behavior: The reasoned action approach. United Kingdom: Psychology Press.

Garcia, P.R.J.M., Restubog, S.L.D., Bordia, P., Bordia, S., and Roxas, R.E.O. (2015). Career optimism: The roles of contextual support and career decision-making self-efficacy. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 88, 10-18.

Gerlitz J.Y., and Schupp, J. (2005). Zur Erhebung der Big-Five-basierten Persönlichkeitsmerkmale imSocio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Dokumentation der Instrumentenentwicklung BFI-S auf Basis des SOEP-Pretests 2005. DIW Research, Notes 4.

Goldberg, L.R. (1981). Language and individual differences: The search for universals in personality lexicons. In L. Wheeler (Ed.), Review of Personality and Social Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 141–165). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Goldberg, L.R. (1990). An alternative “description of personality”: The big-five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1216-1229.

Guan, Y., Dai, X., Gong, Q., Deng, Y., Hou, Y., Dong, Z., and Lai, X. (2017). Understanding the trait basis of career adaptability: A two-wave mediation analysis among Chinese university students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 101, 32-42.

Guan, Y., Deng, H., Sun, J., Wang, Y., Cai, Z., Ye, L., and Li, Y. (2013). Career adaptability, job search self-efficacy and outcomes: A three-wave investigation among Chinese university graduates. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(3), 561-570.

Hahn, E., Gottschling, J., and Spinath, F. M. (2012). Short measurements of personality–Validity and reliability of the GSOEP Big Five Inventory (BFI-S). Journal of Research in Personality, 46(3), 355-359.

Hair, J.F., Hult, G.T.M., Ringle, C.M., and Sarstedt, M. (2013). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). USA: Sage, Thousand Oaks.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M., and Sinkovics, R.R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. In New challenges to international marketing (pp. 277-319). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Hirschi, A., Herrmann, A., and Keller, A.C. (2015). Career adaptivity, adaptability, and adapting: A conceptual and empirical investigation. Journal of VocationalBehavior, 87, 1-10.

Hisrich, R., Langan-Fox, J., and Grant, S. (2007). Entrepreneurship research and practice: A call to action for psychology. American Psychologist, 62, 575.

John, O.P., and Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. Handbook of personality: Theory and Research, 2(1999), 102-138.

Karimi, S., Biemans, H.J., Naderi Mahdei, K., Lans, T., Chizari, M., and Mulder, M. (2017). Testing the relationship between personality characteristics, contextual factors and entrepreneurial intentions in a developing country. International Journal of Psychology, 52(3), 227-240.

Karwowski, M., Lebuda, I., Wisniewska, E., and Gralewski, J. (2013). Big five personality traits as the predictors of creative self‐efficacy and creative personal identity: Does gender matter? The Journal of Creative Behavior, 47(3), 215-232.

Lee, L., Wong, P. K., Der Foo, M., and Leung, A. (2011). Entrepreneurial intentions: The influence of organizational and individual factors. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(1), 124-136.

Li, Y., Guan, Y., Wang, F., Zhou, X., Guo, K., Jiang, P., and Fang, Z. (2015). Big-five personality and BIS/BAS traits as predictors of career exploration: The mediation role of career adaptability. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 89, 39-45.

McClelland, D.C. (1987). Characteristics of successful entrepreneurs. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 21(3), 219-233.

Miao, C., Qian, S., and Ma, D. (2017). The relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and firm performance: A meta-analysis of main and moderator effects. Journal of Small Business Management, 55(1), 87-107.

Newman, A., Obschonka, M., Schwarz, S., Cohen, M., and Nielsen, I. (2019). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy: A systematic review of the literature on its theoretical foundations, measurement, antecedents, and outcomes, and an agenda for future research. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 110(Part B), 403-419.

Nilforooshan, P., and Salimi, S. (2016). Career adaptability as a mediator between personality and career engagement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 94, 1-10.

Obschonka, M., and Stuetzer, M. (2017). Integrating psychological approaches to entrepreneurship: the Entrepreneurial Personality System (EPS). Small Business Economics, 49(1), 203-231.

Obschonka, M., Andersson, H., Silbereisen, R.K., and Sverke, M. (2013). Rule-breaking, crime, and entrepreneurship: A replication and extension study with 37-year longitudinal data. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83, 386-396.

Obschonka, M., Hahn, E., and Bajwa, N.H. (2018). Personal agency in newly arrived refugees: The role of personality, entrepreneurial cognitions and intentions, and career adaptability. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 105, 173-184.

Obschonka, M., Silbereisen, R.K., and Schmitt-Rodermund, E. (2010). Entrepreneurial intention as developmental outcome. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77, 63-72.

Ohme, M., and Zacher, H. (2015). Job performance ratings: The relative importance of mental ability, conscientiousness, and career adaptability. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 87, 161-170.

Patton, W., and McMahon, M. (2006).Career development and systems theories: Connecting theory and practice (2nd ed.). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.

Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B., and Podsakoff, N.P. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 539-569.

Rauch, A., and Frese, M. (2007a). Let's put the person back into entrepreneurship research: A meta-analysis of the relationship between business owners' personality traits, business creation and success. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 16(4), 353-385.

Rauch, A., and Frese, M. (2007b). Born to be an entrepreneur? Revisiting the personality approach to entrepreneurship. In J.R. Baum, M. Frese, and R.J. Baron (Eds.), The psychology of entrepreneurship (pp. 41-65). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Rudolph, C.W., Lavigne, K.N., and Zacher, H. (2017). Career adaptability: A meta-analysis of relationships with measures of adaptivity, adapting responses, and adaptation results. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 98, 17-34.

Salami, S.O. (2017). Examining the emerging entrepreneurial mindset in adolescence: A study in Nigeria. International Journal of Psychology.

Savickas, M.L. (2013). Career construction theory and practice. In R. W. Lent, and S. D. Brown (Eds.). Career development and counselling: Putting theory and research into work (pp. 147–183). (2nd ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.

Savickas, M.L. (2005). The theory and practice of career construction. Career Development and Counseling: Putting Theory and Research to Work, 1, 42-70.

Savickas, M.L., and Porfeli, E.J. (2012). Career adapt-abilities scale: Construction, reliability, and measurement equivalence across 13 countries. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 661-673.

Shane, S., Locke, E.A., and Collins, C.J. (2003). Entrepreneurial motivation. Human Resource Management Review, 13, 257-279.

Shaver, K.G., and Scott, L.R. (1991). Person, process, choice: The psychology of new venture creation. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 16(2), 23-46.

Shook, C.L., and Bratianu, C. (2010). Entrepreneurial intent in a transitional economy: An application of the theory of planned behavior to Romanian students. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 6(3), 231-247.

Teixeira, M.A.P., Bardagi, M.P., Lassance, M.C.P., de Oliveira Magalhães, M., and Duarte, M.E. (2012). Career Adapt-Abilities Scale—Brazilian Form: Psychometric properties and relationships to personality. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(3), 680–685

Tolentino, L.R., Sedoglavich, V., Lu, V.N., Garcia, P.R.J.M., and Restubog, S.L. D. (2014). The role of career adaptability in predicting entrepreneurial intentions: A moderated mediation model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85(3), 403-412.

van Vianen, A.E., Klehe, U.C., Koen, J., and Dries, N. (2012). Career Adapt-Abilities Scale — Netherlands form: Psychometric properties and relationships to ability, personality, and regulatory focus. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(3), 716-724

Wang, J.H., Chang, C.C., Yao, S.N., and Liang, C. (2016). The contribution of self-efficacy to the relationship between personality traits and entrepreneurial intention. Higher Education, 72(2), 209-224.

Wetzels, M., Odekerken-Schröder, G., and Van Oppen, C. (2009). Using PLS path modeling for assessing hierarchical construct models: Guidelines and empirical illustration. MIS quarterly, 33(1),177-195.

Woo, H.R. (2018). Personality traits and intrapreneurship: The mediating effect of career adaptability. Career Development International, 23, 145-162.

Zhao, H., and Seibert, S.E. (2006). The big five personality dimensions and entrepreneurial status: A meta-analytical review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(2), 259.

Zhao, H., Seibert, S.E., and Hills, G.E. (2005). The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1265-1272.

Zhao, H., Seibert, S.E., and Lumpkin, G.T. (2010). The relationship of personality to entrepreneurial intentions and performance: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Management,36(2), 381-404.